Jardiance (empagliflozin)

Generic name: empagliflozin [ EM-pa-gli-FLOE-zin ]
Dosage form: tablets (10 mg; 25 mg)
Drug class: SGLT-2 inhibitors
Drug Form: Oral tablet


In diabetes management, innovation and efficacy are paramount, and Jardiance is the key to solving the metabolic disorder. Empagliflozin, marketed under Jardiance, has garnered significant attention for its therapeutic prowess in combating diabetes mellitus. Lets understand the importance of Jardiance, encompassing its uses, dosing guidelines, side effects, precautions, interactions, alternatives, and frequently asked questions.

What is Jardiance?

Jardiance belongs to a class of medications known as sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. Its active ingredient, empagliflozin, works by inhibiting glucose reabsorption in the kidneys, thereby increasing glucose excretion in the urine and lowering blood sugar levels. This mechanism of action makes Jardiance an invaluable tool in managing type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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Uses of Jardiance

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Management - The primary indication for Jardiance is the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. By improving glycemic control, Jardiance helps reduce the risk of diabetes-related complications such as heart disease, kidney disease, and nerve damage.

Reducing Cardiovascular Risks - Beyond its glucose-lowering effects, Jardiance has demonstrated remarkable cardiovascular benefits. Clinical trials have shown that Jardiance can reduce the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events, including heart attack, stroke, and cardiovascular death, in individuals with type 2 diabetes and established cardiovascular disease.

Heart Failure Management - Jardiance has also shown efficacy in reducing the risk of hospitalization for heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This makes it a valuable addition to the treatment regimen for individuals at risk of heart failure complications.

Chronic Kidney Disease - Recent studies have highlighted the potential of Jardiance to slow the progression of chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. By preserving renal function, Jardiance may help delay the need for dialysis or kidney transplants in these individuals.

Weight Management- Besides its glucose-lowering effects, Jardiance may lead to modest weight loss in individuals with type 2 diabetes. This can be particularly beneficial for overweight or obese patients striving to achieve a healthier body weight.

How to Take Jardiance

Jardiance is typically taken orally, once daily, with or without food. It is essential to follow the dosage instructions provided by your healthcare provider. The tablet should be swallowed whole with water and not crushed or chewed. Patients are advised to maintain adequate hydration while taking Jardiance to reduce the risk of dehydration, especially in hot weather or during strenuous physical activity.

Dosing Information for Jardiance

  1. The recommended starting dose of Jardiance is 10 mg once daily. Depending on individual response and tolerability, the dosage may be increased to 25 mg once daily. 
  2. It is essential to monitor renal function regularly, as dosage adjustments may be necessary for patients with impaired kidney function. 
  3. Depending on the individual's treatment regimen, Jardiance can be taken with or without other antidiabetic medications, such as metformin or insulin.

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Jardiance Side Effects

Increased Urination (Polyuria) - Increased urination is one of the most common side effects of Jardiance. This occurs due to the medication's mechanism of action, which involves inhibiting glucose reabsorption in the kidneys, leading to more glucose being excreted in the urine. As a result, individuals may notice a frequent need to urinate, particularly during the initial stages of treatment.

Genital Yeast Infections -Another prevalent side effect of Jardiance use is genital yeast infections, also known as genital candidiasis. This condition arises due to changes in the genital environment, including increased glucose levels in vaginal secretions, which can promote the growth of yeast. Symptoms may include itching, burning, redness, and abnormal discharge in the genital area.

Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) -Jardiance may also increase some individuals' risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs). UTIs occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract and multiply, leading to symptoms such as frequent urination, burning sensation during urination, cloudy or bloody urine, and pelvic pain. Patients experiencing symptoms of UTIs should seek medical attention promptly for evaluation and treatment.

Thirst (Polydipsia) -As a consequence of increased urination, individuals taking Jardiance may experience heightened thirst, known as polydipsia. The body attempts to compensate for fluid loss by triggering thirst signals, prompting individuals to consume more fluids to maintain a hydration balance.

Hypoglycemia-  When combined with insulin or insulin secretagogues (e.g., sulfonylureas), Jardiance may increase the risk of hypoglycemia or low blood sugar levels. Hypoglycemia can manifest as sweating, trembling, dizziness, confusion, and palpitations. Carry glucose tablets or snacks for emergency treatment.

Ketoacidosis - Although rare, Jardiance use may lead to ketoacidosis, a serious metabolic complication characterized by the accumulation of ketones in the blood. Symptoms of ketoacidosis may include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, excessive thirst, confusion, and difficulty breathing.

Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) - In some cases, Jardiance may precipitate acute kidney injury, a sudden decrease in kidney function. Symptoms of AKI may include decreased urine output, swelling in the legs or ankles, fatigue, confusion, and nausea. Patients with pre-existing kidney disease or other risk factors for AKI should be closely monitored while taking Jardiance.

Hypotension -Jardiance use may lead to hypotension or low blood pressure, particularly in individuals prone to volume depletion or taking antihypertensive medications. Symptoms of hypotension may include lightheadedness, dizziness, fainting, and weakness.

Hyperkalemia - Hyperkalemia, or high potassium levels in the blood, is another potential complication of Jardiance use. Symptoms of hyperkalemia may include muscle weakness, palpitations, nausea, and tingling sensations. Patients should regularly monitor electrolyte levels, particularly potassium, to detect and manage hyperkalemia promptly.

Fournier's Gangrene - Although extremely rare, Jardiance use has been linked to cases of Fournier's gangrene, a life-threatening infection of the genital and perineal area. Symptoms of Fournier's gangrene may include severe pain, swelling, redness, and necrotic tissue formation.

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Before Taking This Medicine

Before starting Jardiance, patients should inform their healthcare provider about any existing medical conditions, allergies, or medications they are taking. It is essential to disclose any history of kidney problems, urinary tract infections, or genital yeast infections, as these conditions may affect the suitability or dosage of Jardiance. Pregnant or breastfeeding women should consult their healthcare provider before using Jardiance, as its safety during pregnancy and lactation has not been established.

Warnings for Jardiance

Patients taking Jardiance should be aware of potential risks and warnings associated with the medication. Jardiance may increase the risk of genital yeast infections and urinary tract infections, so patients should practice good genital hygiene and promptly seek medical attention if they experience any symptoms of the disease. Additionally, patients should be monitored for signs and symptoms of ketoacidosis, a severe condition characterized by elevated blood ketone levels, which may occur with Jardiance use.

Interactions with Jardiance

Jardiance may interact with certain medications, potentially affecting their efficacy or safety. Patients should inform their healthcare provider about all medicines they are taking, including prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications, and herbal supplements, to avoid potential interactions. Commonly used medicines that may interact with Jardiance include diuretics, antihypertensives, and insulin.

Other Drugs That Affect Jardiance

In addition to potential drug interactions, certain medications may also affect the efficacy or safety of Jardiance. Patients should be cautious when using medications such as rifampin, phenytoin, and ritonavir concomitantly with Jardiance, as they may alter its metabolism or excretion. It is essential to consult a healthcare provider before starting or stopping any medication while taking Jardiance.

Alternatives for Jardiance

While Jardiance offers significant benefits for individuals with type 2 diabetes, several alternatives are available for diabetes management. Other SGLT2 inhibitors, such as dapagliflozin and canagliflozin, offer similar mechanisms of action and may be suitable alternatives to Jardiance. Different classes of antidiabetic medications, including metformin, sulfonylureas, DPP-4 inhibitors, and GLP-1 receptor agonists, provide alternative treatment options based on individual patient needs and preferences.

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Jardiance helps fight against type 2 diabetes mellitus and its associated complications. While it offers promising benefits in terms of glycemic control, cardiovascular risk reduction, and weight management, it is crucial to weigh its potential risks and adhere to prescribed guidelines under the supervision of a healthcare professional. With proper monitoring and prudent management, Jardiance paves the way towards improved health outcomes and enhanced quality of life for individuals living with diabetes.


How to Avoid Yeast Infections on Jardiance?

Practicing good genital hygiene, wearing breathable underwear, and avoiding tight-fitting clothing can help reduce the risk of yeast infections while taking Jardiance. Additionally, promptly treating any signs of infection with antifungal medications can help prevent their recurrence.

How Long Does It Take for Jardiance to Work?

Jardiance may lower blood sugar levels within a few days of treatment. Still, its full effects on glycemic control and cardiovascular outcomes may take several weeks to months to manifest. Patients should continue taking Jardiance as prescribed by their healthcare provider, even if they do not notice immediate improvements in their symptoms.

Does Jardiance Cause Weight Loss?

Yes, Jardiance may lead to modest weight loss in individuals with type 2 diabetes. This effect is believed to be primarily due to excess glucose and calorie loss through increased urinary excretion.

Can Jardiance Be Used to Treat Type 1 Diabetes?

Jardiance is not approved for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus and should not be used as a substitute for insulin therapy in these patients. Its mechanism of action, which relies on intact renal function and the presence of glucose in the urine, limits its utility in type 1 diabetes management.

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